Editors: Jennifer Baker, Andrés Rivera Ruiz, and Madeline Barron
There is much to appreciate about the way our bodies keep themselves healthy through the array of different immune cell types and their related, yet distinct, methods of protecting us from sickness. From T cells conducting orchestrated attacks on foreign pathogens to B cells producing antibodies which stave off severe illness at the outset of an infection, these cells and their diverse functions resemble a set of chess pieces in the way that they each perform unique tasks in consort with one another to achieve a common objective. However, their goal is not necessarily victory over any one opponent, but rather against all challenges to the immune system, whether external viruses such as COVID-19, or from within, as is the case with cancer.
Editors; Noah Steinfeld, Tricia Garay, and Scott Barolo
A glance into any organic chemistry or biochemistry textbook reveals a dizzying variety of chemical compounds, reactions and mechanisms. It is not at all obvious why one particular class of reaction, the attachment and detachment of a phosphate group (PO43-) to molecules like nucleotides and proteins, is central to making the chemistry of life “go.”
So where do we find phosphorylation in biochemistry? The answer is: pretty much everywhere! I will discuss two key examples. Firstly, phosphorylation is important in “cell signaling,” the sensing of messages from outside a cell and their incorporation into cellular decision-making. It’s worth observing that there isn’t anything we’d recognize as a brain in cells – decision-making is an emergent property of the integration of these signals, not the doing of a microscopic cellular homunculus pulling levers or “thinking.”